Dental x-rays are a type of picture of the teeth and mouth. X-rays are a form of electromagnetic radiation, just like visible light. They are of higher energy, however, and can penetrate the body to form an image on film.
Structures that are dense (such as silver fillings or metal restoration) will block most of the photons and will appear white on developed film. Structures containing air will be black on film, and teeth, tissue, and fluid will appear as shades of gray.